My Stephen Sondheim Homepage
Biography of an American Musical Theater Icon

Click here for the Earliest Shows Click here for Later Shows: "Sweeney Todd", on. Click here for a Bio Excerpt from The Kennedy Center Click here for Discography.

Stephen Sondheim was born on March 22, 1930, the son of a wealthy New York dress manufacturer. But, when his parents divorced, his mother moved to Bucks County, Pennsylvania and young Stephen found himself in the right place at the right time. A neighbor of his mother's, Oscar Hammerstein II, was working on a new musical called "Oklahoma!" and it didn't take long for the adolescent boy to realise that he, too, was intrigued by musical theatre. Although he subsequently studied composition with Milton Babbitt, he chose to apply what he learned in the all-or-nothing commercial hothouse of Broadway. Like Hammerstein, he has written the occasional pop song (with Jule Styne for Tony Bennett) and dabbled in films (Stavisky, Reds, Dick Tracy), but, like Hammerstein, he has always come back to the theatre.

His initial success came as a somewhat reluctant lyricist to Leonard Bernstein on West Side Story (1957) and Jule Styne on Gypsy (1959). Exciting and adventurous as those shows were in their day, and for all their enduring popularity, Sondheim's philosophy since is encapsulated in one of his song titles: "I Never Do Anything Twice". His first score as composer-lyricist was A Funny Thing Happened On The Way To The Forum (1962) - a show so funny few people spotted how experimental it was: it's still the only successful musical farce. In the following three decades, critics detected a Sondheim style - a fondness for the harmonic language of Ravel and Debussy; a reliance on vamps and skewed harmonies to destabilise the melody; a tendency to densely literate lyrics. But, all that said, it's the versatility that still impresses: you couldn't swap a song from the exuberantly explosive pit-band score of Anyone Can Whistle (1964) with one of the Orientally influenced musical scenes in Pacific Overtures (1976); you couldn't mistake the neurotic pop score of Company (1970) for the elegantly ever-waltzing A Little Night Music (1973).

Sondheim hit his stride in the Seventies, forming a unique partnership with Hal Prince: a composer-lyricist and a producer-director working together to re-invent the musical. Some were plotless (Company), some characterless (Pacific Overtures), one went backwards (Merrily We Roll Along). But, as his onetime choreographer Michael Bennett put it, before you can break the rules, you have to know what they are - and Sondheim knows America's cultural heritage better then anybody. Follies (1971) is an affectionate and precise pastiche of Berlin, Kern, Gershwin, Dorothy Fields, Yip Harburg ... Even as he seemed to be turning his back on that great tradition, he was also a glorious summation of it.

With Sweeney Todd (1979), the Prince/Sondheim collaboration reached its apogee, blurring the distinctions between lyrics and dialogue, songs and underscoring, and combining a complex plot with operatic emotions to create a unique musical thriller. But their next show, Merrily We Roll Along (1981), flopped, and the two men went their separate ways. Sondheim turned to the author and director James Lapine for Sunday In The Park With George (1984), a work that seemed at times an autobiographical reflection on the problems of making art in a commercial environment. His most recent shows illustrate one of his greatest strengths, his ability to write against audience expectations of the subject: for Into The Woods (1987), he gave such familiar nursery figures as Cinderella and Red Riding Hood complex extended numbers; for the eponymous anti-heroes of Assassins (1990), he wrote some of his most affecting, straightforward music, reaching back beyond Berlin to barbershop and Stephen Foster, and almost to our own time with an ironic parody of the Carpenters. Not everyone feels comfortable watching Lee Harvey Oswald singing along with John Wilkes Booth, but, in stretching the possibilities of the musical, Sondheim is seeking to prove that the form has just as wide a range as the straight play. And for that we should all be grateful.

The following is an excerpt from The Kennedy Center, which honored Sondheim in 1993:

"Stephen Sondheim is the father of the modern American musical. He took the classic form bequeathed to him by Rodgers and Hammerstein and reinvented it to reflect and analyze the anxious mood of this country throughout the last three decades without losing any of the brio and originality that has made the American musical perhaps the most cherished product of our popular culture.

He has won five Tony Awards for his scores of Company, Follies, A Little Night Music, Sweeney Todd, and Into the Woods. Probably no one else on Broadway has composed scores more perfectly suited to the plays for which they are written than Sondheim, whose music evokes moods of emotional ambivalence and complexity demanded by his characters and their situations. His lyrics are universally acknowledged as musical theater's best: clever, razor-edged light verse laced with puns, literary allusions, and playful rhymes.

"Sondheim's creativity is, perhaps more than anything else, a function of the comfort he feels in being an observer in a wide world," says Samuel G. Freedman, a theater reporter for The New York Times. "Even when the shows have been set abroad or in the past, their themes have addressed contemporary topics--or universal ones: the travails of modern marriage in Company, the corrosion of American optimism in Follies, injustice and revenge in Sweeney Todd, idealism and compromise in Merrily We Roll Along, and Western imperialism in Pacific Overtures." Add to the list his explorations of the artist's creative process in Sunday in the Park with George, parenting and the journey toward self-knowledge in Into the Woods, and even the changing attitudes of American women in some of his early works such as Gypsy, Do I hear a Waltz, and Anyone Can Whistle.

This creativity has produced one of the most extraordinary song-writing careers in the American theater and works so unconventional and innovative that time and time again they have redefined what American musical theater can accomplish."

  1. The 1950's
    1. Kukla, Fran And Ollie (1952)
    2. Saturday Night (1955)
    3. The Girls Of Summer (1956)
    4. The Last Resorts (1956)
    5. I Believe In You (1956)
    6. West Side Story (Music By Leonard Bernstein, 1957)
    7. Gypsy (Music By Jule Styne, 1959)

  2. The 1960's
    1. Invitation To A March (1960)
    2. The World of Jules Feiffer (1962)
    3. A Funny Thing Happened On The Way To The Forum (1962)
    4. Hot Spot (1963)
    5. Anyone Can Whistle (1964)
    6. Do I Hear A Waltz? (Music By Richard Rodgers, 1965)
    7. The Mad Show (Music By Mary Rodgers, 1965)
    8. Evening Primrose (1966)
    9. The Thing Of It Is (1969)

  3. The 1970's
    1. Company (1970)
    2. Follies (1971)
    3. A Little Night Music (1973)
    4. The Enclave (1973)
    5. Stavisky (1974)
    6. Candide (Music By Leonard Bernstein, 1974 Revision)
    7. The Frogs (1974)
    8. The Seven Percent Solution (1976)
    9. Pacific Overtures (1976)
    10. Side By Side By Sondheim (1976)
    11. Sweeney Todd (1979)

  4. The 1980's and 1990's
    1. Marry Me A Little (1980)
    2. Reds (1981)
    3. Merrily We Roll Along (1981)
    4. Sunday In The Park With George (1984)
    5. Into The Woods (1987)
    6. Dick Tracy (1990)
    7. Assassins (1991)
    8. Singing Out Loud (1992)
    9. Putting It Together (1993)
    10. Passion (1994)
    11. The Birdcage (1996)

Click here to go to my "Company" Homepage. Click here to go to my "Follies" Homepage.
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